International Agency for Research on Cancer. Tobacco smoking. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Hum 38. Lyon: IARC, 1986.
Franceschi S, Talamani R, Barra S et al. Smoking and drinking in relation to cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and oesophagus in Northern Italy. Cancer Res 1990; 50: 6502–6507.
Idris A M, Ahmed H M, Malik M A O . Toombak dipping and cancer of the oral cavity in the Sudan: a case control study. Int J Cancer 1995; 63: 477–480.
Zain R B, Gupta P C, Warnakulasuriya S, Shrestha P, Ikelda N, Axell T . Oral lesions associated with Betel quid and tobacco chewing habits. Oral Dis 1997; 3: 204–205.
Hecht S S, Hoffmann D . Tobacco-specific nitrosamines, an important group of carcinogens in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Carcinogenesis 1988; 9: 875–884.
Hukkanen J, Jacob P III, Benowitz N L . Metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine. Pharmacol Rev 2005; 57: 79–115.
Lindstrom J, Anand R, Gerzanich V, Peng X, Wang F, Wells G . Structure and function of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Prog Brain Res 1996; 109: 125–137.
Benowitz N L, Hukkanen J, Jacob P III . Nicotine chemistry, metabolism, kinetics and biomarkers. Handb Exp Pharmacol 2009; 92: 29–60.
Sanner T, Grimsrud T K . Nicotine: carcinogenicity and effects on response to cancer treatment – a review. Front Oncol 2015; 5: 196.
Stead L F, Perera R, Bullen C, Mant D et al. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 11: CD000146.
Lee P N . The effect of switching from cigarettes to snus – A review. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2013; 66: 1–5.
Hansson J, Galanti M R, Hergens M P et al. Use of snus and acute myocardial infaction: pooled analysis of eight prospective observational studies. Eur J Epidemiol 2012; 27: 771–779.
Roosaar A, Johansson A L V, Sandborgh-Englund G, Nyren O, Axell T . A long-term follow-up study on the natural course of snus-induced lesions among Swedish snus users. Int J Cancer 2006; 119: 392–397.
Hirsch J M, Wallstrom M, Carlsson A P, Sand L . Oral cancer in Swedish snuff dippers. Anticancer Res 2012; 32: 3327–3330.
Ramstrom L, Borland R, Wikmans T . Patterns of smoking and snus use in Sweden: implications for Public Health. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2016; 13: 1110.
European Commission. Attitudes of Europeans towards Tobacco and Electronic Cigarettes, Brussels: European Commission, 2015, Special Eurobarometer 429.
Public Health England. E-cigarettes and heated tobacco products: evidence review. London: HMG, 2018. Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/e-cigarettes-and-heated-tobacco-products-evidence-review.
Lund I, Lund K E . How has the availability of snus influenced cigarette smoking in Norway? Int J Environ Res Public Health 2014; 11: 11705–11717.
Murphy F . Rise of a new superpower: health and China’s ambition. BMJ 2018; 360: 264–265.
Committees on toxicity, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of chemicals in food, consumer products and the environment. Statement on the toxicological evaluation of novel heatnotburn tobacco products. London: Food Standards Agency, 2018. Available at https://cot.food.gov.uk/sites/default/files/heat_not_burn_tobacco_summary.pdf (accessed April 2018).
Arlidge J . Big tobacco looks east to sell a new kind of smoking. The Times 2018. Available at https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/big-tobacco-looks-east-to-sell-a-new-kind-of-smoking-ttxfsp9vr (accessed April 2018).
Tabuchi T, Gallus S, Shinozaki T et al. Heat not burn tobacco product use in Japan: its prevalence, predictors and perceived symptoms from exposure to secondhand heat-not-burn tobacco aerosol. Tob Control 2017; 27: e25–e33
Hawkes N . Big tobacco’s resolution to pack in cigarettes. BMJ 2018; 360: 49.
Farsalinos K E, Yannovitis N, Sarri T, Voudris V, Poulas K . Nicotine delivery to the aerosol of a heat-not-burn tobacco product: comparison with a tobacco cigarette and e-cigarettes. Nicotine Tob Res 2017; 20: 1004–1009.
Li x, Luo Y, Jiang X et al. Chemical analysis and simulated pyrolysis of tobacco heating system 2.2 compared to conventional cigarettes. Nicotine Tob Res 2018; 10.1093/ntr/nty005.
Davis B, Williams M, Talbot P . iQOS: evidence of pyrolysis and release of toxicant from plastic. Tob Control 2018; 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2017-054104.
Zanetti F, Titz B, Sewer A et al. Comparative systems toxicology analysis of cigarette smoke and aerosol from a candidate modified risk tobacco product in organotypic human gingival epithelial cultures: a 3day repeated exposure rest. Food Chem Toxicol 2017; 101: 15–35.
Zanetti F, Sewer A, Mathis C et al. Systems Toxicology Assessment of the Biological Impact of a Candidate Modified Risk Tobacco Product on Human Organotypic Oral Epithelial Cultures. Chem Res Toxicol 2016; 29: 1252–1269.
Zanetti F, Sewer A, Scotti E et al. Assessment of the impact of aerosol from a potential modified risk tobacco product compared with cigarette smoke on human organotypic oral epithelial cultures under different exposure regimens. Food Chem Toxicol 2018; 115: 148–169.
Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. Ecigarette use among youth and young adults: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: USA Department of Health and Human Services, 2016.
Hartmann-Boyce J, McRobbie H, Bullen C, Begh R, Stead L F, Hajek P . Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016; 9: CD010216.
Bullen C, Howe C, Laugesen M et al. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2013; 382: 1629–1637.
Caponnetto P, Campagna D, Cibella F et al. EffiCiency and Safety of an eLectronic cigAreTte (ECLAT) as tobacco cigarettes substitute: a prospective 12-month randomized control design study. PLoS One 2013; 8: e66317.
NICE guidance. Stop Smoking Interventions and Services [NG 92]. London: NICE, 2018. Available at https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng92/ (accessed April 2018).
Tobacco advisory group of the Royal College of Physicians. Nicotine without smoke: tobacco harm reduction. London: Royal College of Physicians, 2016.
Committee on the Review of the Health Effects of Electronic Nicotine Delivery systems. Public Health Consequences of Ecigarettes. Washington DC: The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine, 2018. Available at http://nationalacademies.org/hmd/reports/2018/public-health-consequences-of-e-cigarettes.aspx (accessed April 2018).
Yu V, Rahimy M, Korrapati A et al. Electronic cigarettes induce DNA strand breaks and cell death independently of nicotine in cell lines. Oral Oncol 2016; 52: 58–65.
Holliday R, Kist R, Bauld L . E-cigarette vapour is not inert and exposure can lead to cell damage. Evid Based Dent 2016; 17: 2–3.